BOULANGER-JOIMEL Sophie.JPG

BOULANGER-JOIMEL Sophie

Enseignante-Chercheure : Ecologie du Sol AgroParisTech

Corps :

Maître de conférences

Equipe :

Sol&Tox

Année d'arrivée à APT :

2015

Formation :

Master Gestion de la biodiversité

Thèse sur la biodiversité et les sols des jardins familiaux

Fonction principale et transversale, responsabilités :

Enseignante- chercheuse en écologie des sols, responsable toiture expérimentale APT, référente/membre copil (EMS, LAB3S, Chaire AU, …)

Ce que je fais : 

Caractérisation de la biodiversité des sols en milieux urbains et agricoles, effets des pratiques agricoles ou aménagements urbains sur la biodiversité des sols, dynamique de colonisation et mode de dispersion des collemboles, expérimentations en toiture potagère

Techniques, instruments, méthodes et dispositifs utilisés :

Extraction d’organismes du sol (e.g. collemboles, nématodes, vers de terre) par tri manuel ou appareil (MacFadyen, berlèse), Identification sous loupes binoculaires et microscope à contraste de phase, Approche taxonomique et fonctionnelle

En dehors du travail (centres d’intérêt):

Piano, couture, lecture, cinéma, tir à l’arc

Lien personnel (Linkedin, page perso…)

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sophie-Joimel

SBJ

 

HAL : Dernières publications

  • [hal-04373947] Global fine-resolution data on springtail abundance and community structure

    Springtails (Collembola) inhabit soils from the Arctic to the Antarctic and comprise an estimated ~32% of all terrestrial arthropods on Earth. Here, we present a global, spatially-explicit database on springtail communities that includes 249,912 occurrences from 44,999 samples and 2,990 sites. These data are mainly raw sample-level records at the species level collected predominantly from private archives of the authors that were quality-controlled and taxonomically-standardised. Despite covering all continents, most of the sample-level data come from the European continent (82.5% of all samples) and represent four habitats: woodlands (57.4%), grasslands (14.0%), agrosystems (13.7%) and scrublands (9.0%). We included sampling by soil layers, and across seasons and years, representing temporal and spatial within-site variation in springtail communities. We also provided data use and sharing guidelines and R code to facilitate the use of the database by other researchers. This data paper describes a static version of the database at the publication date, but the database will be further expanded to include underrepresented regions and linked with trait data.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Anton M Potapov) 05 Jan 2024

    https://hal.science/hal-04373947
  • [hal-04510782] Indicators of practice intensity unearth the effects of cropping systems on soil mesofauna

    Soil organisms are impacted by a wide range of physical and chemical disturbances in intensive cropping systems. The development of cropping systems less disturbing to soil biodiversity requires to understand the consequences of various practices on soil organisms. However, most studies characterize the effects of cropping systems by distinguishing between the main types of systems (i.e. conventional, organic, conservation) without taking into account the diversity of applied practices. In this study, we aimed to describe cropping systems and their effects on soil mesofauna using indicators of practice intensity previously developed by agronomists. Mesofauna sampling was conducted in autumn 2020 and 2021 over 21 fields under conventional, conservation or organic systems, either long-established (≥ 7 years) or in transition (≤ 3 years). Primary indicators and composite indexes were computed to determine the intensity of tillage, pesticide treatments and organic inputs, and used as predictors for mesofauna density and Collembola species diversity. In 2020, mesofauna density was lower in organic than in conventional systems, and both did not differ significantly from conservation systems. In 2021, Collembola density tended to be the highest in long-established conservation systems. Transitioning organic systems had a low mesofauna density. Using composite indexes, mesofauna density and Collembola diversity were observed to decrease under high tillage and low pesticide treatment intensity, while we found no clear effect using the organic input intensity index. Overall, practice intensity indicators and indexes were useful to explain the effects of cropping systems on soil mesofauna density and diversity. In particular, the tillage intensity index showed a major impact of tillage on soil mesofauna. However, the significance of the effects of practice intensity on mesofauna varied between years. Future studies are thus necessary to fully assess the relevance of intensity indicators and indexes in assessing the effects of cropping systems on soil biodiversity.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Juliette Chassain) 19 Mar 2024

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04510782
  • [hal-04538071] Qualité des sols en milieu urbain

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    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Claire Chenu) 09 Apr 2024

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04538071
  • [hal-04273775] Valorisation des digestats par extraction des fractions biostimulantes - Effets sur la croissance du seigle d’hiver et la biodiversité du sol (Projet ValoDig)

    Un développement croissant de la méthanisation comme source d’énergie bas carbone est attendu dans le monde via l’incitation des politiques actuelles (ex : pacte vert pour l’Europe visant la neutralité carbone à horizon 2050). Sur la totalité des intrants soumis au processus de digestion anaérobie dans les méthaniseurs, environ 10% sont valorisés sous forme de biogaz alors que 90% ressortent sous forme de coproduits appelés digestat. Ces derniers sont majoritairement épandus sur les terres agricoles pour leurs propriétés fertilisantes et amendantes. Toutefois, l’augmentation attendue des volumes de digestat et les contraintes pouvant être liées à leur épandage agricole (règlementation, excès de nutriments, distance de transport, coût de stockage ou qualité du digestat) ouvrent les recherches sur de nouvelles voies de valorisation. De précédentes études ont mis en avant la présence de molécules bioactives dans les digestats [1-5] et ont évalué leurs propriétés biostimulantes sur plante [6-19]. Toutefois, ces études restent limitées aux digestats agricoles, aux plantes ornementales et maraichères et testées en conditions simplifiées (i.e. : hydroponie et sol artificiel). De plus très peu d’études ont étudié l’impact des extraits de digestat sur la biodiversité du sol. Ainsi, les objectifs du projet ValoDig sont (i) d’étudier les propriétés biostimulantes des digestats issus de méthaniseurs territoriaux et de leurs extraits sur une culture modèle de type CIVE en conditions simplifiées et en sol naturel et (ii) d’étudier leurs effets sur la biodiversité du sol. Pour cela, les fractions biostimulantes ont été extraites du digestat brut, solide et liquide d’une unité territoriale de méthanisation selon un protocole adapté de la littérature [13,20,21,22]. Un test de culture en hydroponie normalisé en éléments nutritifs NPK a été réalisé sur seigle d’hiver (var. Turbogreen) avec apport des biostimulants suivants : extrait soluble, extrait de décalcification, extrait acide fulvique et extrait acide humique issus des digestats bruts en comparaison avec le digestat liquide et brut sans extraction et une référence de biostimulant commerciale (Humifirst). Un second test en sol (QualiAgro) a été réalisé selon les mêmes modalités. Des suivis quantitatifs (nombre de feuilles, surface foliaire, nombre de thalles, hauteur des plantes, longueur des racines, biomasse aérienne, biomasse racinaire) ont été réalisés sur les plantes. L’effet des digestats et extraits de digestat (additionnés de solution nutritive) a également été testé sur des vers de terre juvéniles de l’espèce Aporrectodea caliginosa (ISO 11268-1 (2015) et ISO 11268-2 (2023)). Lors de cette étude, les digestats ou extraits de digestat ont montré peu de propriétés biostimulantes en comparaison à la solution nutritive sur la croissance du seigle d’hiver (CIVE). De plus, les effets sur plante des extraits de digestat étaient similaires au digestat brut et liquide et à la référence commerciale. Pour finir, aucun effet négatif ou positif n’a été observé sur la croissance d’A. caliginosa.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Bruno Chaves) 07 Nov 2023

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04273775
  • [hal-04171456] The role of green roofs as urban habitats for biodiversity modulated by their design: a review

    In view of the demographic revolution and the rapid development of urban environments, the installation of green roofs could be a tool to ensure human well-being (e.g. heat island reduction, rainwater management), or to increase urban biodiversity. However, the relationships between biodiversity and green roofs are not yet clear and little research has looked into this. We therefore reviewed studies on the overall biodiversity of green roofs. Our review has shown that there is a lack of knowledge of the biodiversity of green roofs, with recent consideration. We highlighted the importance of green roof contribution, in maintaining urban biodiversity through three lines of research: characterization, modes of use and design. Furthermore, we found that there were very few studies on soil biodiversity on this topic. We concluded that green roof construction guidelines should integrate soil communities into their design and aim to be heterogeneous at roof and landscape level. Future research should focus on the diversification and redundancy of rooftop conditions in the urban matrix. This would increase the area of green habitats and the success of species dispersal in cities.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sékou F M Coulibaly) 26 Jul 2023

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04171456
  • [hal-04273766] Biostimulant extraction from digestates and their impact on soil biodiversity and plant growth (ValoDig)

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    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Bruno Chaves) 07 Nov 2023

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04273766
  • [hal-04500961] De l’agronomie à l’écologie : Utiliser des indicateurs pour illustrer les effets des systèmes de culture sur la biodiversité des sols

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Juliette Chassain) 12 Mar 2024

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04500961
  • [hal-04146561] Contribution de l'agriculture de conservation des sols à la transition agroécologique. Discours introductif de la séance.

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (H. Boizard) 30 Jun 2023

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04146561
  • [hal-03979986] Globally invariant metabolism but density-diversity mismatch in springtails

    Soil life supports the functioning and biodiversity of terrestrial ecosystems. Springtails (Collembola) are among the most abundant soil arthropods regulating soil fertility and flow of energy through above- and belowground food webs. However, the global distribution of springtail diversity and density, and how these relate to energy fluxes remains unknown. Here, using a global dataset representing 2470 sites, we estimate the total soil springtail biomass at 27.5 megatons carbon, which is threefold higher than wild terrestrial vertebrates, and record peak densities up to 2 million individuals per square meter in the tundra. Despite a 20-fold biomass difference between the tundra and the tropics, springtail energy use (community metabolism) remains similar across the latitudinal gradient, owing to the changes in temperature with latitude. Neither springtail density nor community metabolism is predicted by local species richness, which is high in the tropics, but comparably high in some temperate forests and even tundra. Changes in springtail activity may emerge from latitudinal gradients in temperature, predation and resource limitation in soil communities. Contrasting relationships of biomass, diversity and activity of springtail communities with temperature suggest that climate warming will alter fundamental soil biodiversity metrics in different directions, potentially restructuring terrestrial food webs and affecting soil functioning.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Anton Potapov) 21 Feb 2023

    https://hal.science/hal-03979986v2
  • [hal-04369615] Collembola taxonomic and functional diversity in conventional, organic and conservation cropping systems

    Intensive agriculture has been demonstrated to be a main threat to soil biodiversity through physical and chemical disturbances of soil. Alternative systems based on lower disturbances may help to promote soil biodiversity and its role in soil functioning. However, the effects of alternative systems on soil biodiversity are still poorly understood, especially regarding soil mesofauna. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of alternative cropping systems and practice intensity on the taxonomic and functional diversity of Collembola. Collembola were sampled for two consecutive years in 21 fields (3 plots per field) under conventional or alternative systems, namely conservation or organic systems either stable (≥7 years) or in transition (≤3 years). Indicators and indices were computed to characterize separately tillage, pesticide treatments and organic fertilization in each field. Collembola species and functional traits were investigated. Functional diversity of Collembola was assessed using species traits (i.e. traits from the literature) and by conducting length measurements directly on collected Collembola individuals (body, head, leg, antenna and furca length). Collembola diversity was highly variable between and within cropping systems and years. Species richness was notably higher in conservation than in conventional systems in the second year of the study. More specifically, low tillage and high pesticide treatment intensities increased taxonomic and functional diversity and affected species with traits adapted to the surface (i.e. scales, trichobothria). Measured Collembola body length additionally revealed the presence of larger individuals under low tillage and high pesticide treatment intensities, with similar results for other length traits. Overall, our results revealed that 1) taxonomic and functional diversity are complementary to understand the effects of agricultural practices and systems on Collembola and 2) measurement of body length is relevant to assess the effects of disturbances on the local Collembola community.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Juliette Chassain) 02 Jan 2024

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04369615
  • [hal-04471013] Unearthing the effect of cropping systems on soil biodiversity: indicators to describe disturbances caused by agricultural practices Oral

    Soil organisms are key actors of agroecosystem functioning, especially as they drive soil physical and chemical fertility (Brussaard et al., 2007). In intensively cropped soils, their density and diversity are particularly low due to a wide range of physical and chemical disturbances caused by management practices (Christel et al., 2021). Thus, it is crucial to understand the consequences of various practices on soil organisms in order to develop alternative cropping systems that will rely on soil biodiversity. However, we still lack understanding on the agronomic levers that could promote soil organisms. Indeed, most studies on agricultural soils assess biodiversity by distinguishing between the main cropping systems, usually conventional, organic and no-till systems. Under real conditions, even within these broad categories of systems, there is a wide diversity of practices. This actual gradient of practices may be responsible for a large part of the observed variability and can lead to a misinterpretation of their effects on soil biodiversity. Indicators have been developed by agronomists in order to better characterize cropping systems and to overcome the usual system classification. In this study, we use those indicators, not only to describe cropping systems more finely, but also to assess the effect of physical and chemical disturbances on the soil community. We rely on a recent methodology to select indicators belonging to three categories: soil disturbance and protection, organic matter inputs and nitrogen fertilization, and crop protection. Soil macrofauna, mesofauna and microorganisms were sampled in 21 fields during autumn 2020 and 2021. We sorted organisms by groups, and identified earthworms, collembola, fungi and bacteria at the species level. Management practices on all fields were collected by conducting exhaustive farmer surveys. Resulting indicators revealed gradients of disturbance intensity among fields. The relationship between these indicators and the density and diversity of the sampled soil organisms enable us to evaluate the intensity of soil community disturbance. Overall, the variability of soil biodiversity among fields remains high. Therefore, future studies are necessary to fully assess the potential of those indicators to describe the effect of various cropping systems on soil biodiversity.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (J Chassain) 21 Feb 2024

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04471013
  • [hal-03749556] A common framework for developing robust soil fauna classifications

    Classifying organisms has a wide use and a long history in ecology. However, the meaning of a ‘group of organisms’ and how to group organisms is still the subject of much theoretical and empirical work. Achieving this long quest requires simplifying the complexity of species niches for which relevant morphological, behavioural, biochemical or life-history traits are often used as relevant proxies. Soil fauna is highly diverse and many classifications have been proposed to synthesize both the response of soil organisms to their environment and their effect on soil functioning. Here, we provide a critical overview of the characteristics and limitations of the existing classifications in soil ecology, and propose clarifications and alternatives to current practices. We summarise the similarities and differences in how classifications have been created and used in soil ecology. We propose a harmonization of the current concepts by properly defining ‘guilds’, ‘functional groups’ and ‘trophic groups’ as subcategories of ‘ecological groups’, with different purposes and distinguishing criteria. Finally, based on these concepts, we suggest a common framework to define classifications based on functional traits that allows a better and unified understanding of changes in soil biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Mickael Hedde) 11 Aug 2022

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03749556
  • [hal-03855568] Les services écosystémiques rendus par les agricultures urbaines

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    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Patrick Stella) 16 Nov 2022

    https://hal.science/hal-03855568
  • [hal-04059484] Collembola are Among the Most Pesticide‐Sensitive Soil Fauna Groups: A Meta‐Analysis

    Pesticides are a major concern because of their deleterious impacts on biodiversity and on the ecological functions provided by living organisms. Although earthworms are well studied, smaller-sized organisms, such as Collembola, also contribute to the agroecosystem functioning, and their sensitivity to pesticides makes them good bioindicators of soil quality. Using data from 21 publications, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the pesticide sensitivity of Collembola with other soil invertebrate groups and discuss the relevance of including tests on representatives of this microarthropods group in European regulation tests. We defined a paired observation as the median lethal concentration or the median effect concentration values for both Collembola species and another soil fauna group (Acari, enchytraeids, earthworms, isopods, and nematodes) under a unique combination of author, year, substance, and type of soil (61 and 57 paired observations for reproduction and lethal effects). In some studies, paired comparisons were available for several groups of soil fauna. We demonstrated that Collembola are among the most sensitive soil fauna groups to a variety of pesticides, notably for effects on reproduction, mostly compared with earthworms and enchytraeids. Because there are several modes of exposure and explaining factors, we suggest moving from a single-species study to a food-chain approach integrating different taxonomic groups. Differences between soil fauna groups in sensitivity or response to pesticides could have effects on soil communities and also on soil functions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2022;00:1-9. (c) 2022 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 05 Apr 2023

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04059484
  • [hal-03665441] Collembola dispersion, selection, and biological interactions in urban ecosystems: a review

    Most of the ecological predictions that are intended to be general have been made on the basis of observations of aerial organisms, ignoring subterranean organisms, which are subject to other-and complex-constraints compared from those present on the surface. Collembola, a soil fauna group, are good biological indicators of soil quality and could be used as model organisms in order to understand assembly rules of soil organisms in cities. Here we review available literature on soil Collembola conducted on 75 publications dealing with urban context. The major points are the following: (1) Soil properties and landscape characteristics influenced soil communities. The importance of landscape is also highlighted by the need of connectivity between urban green spaces in order to allow dispersion of Collembola. However, studies of Collembola communities in urban context are recent, offering little hindsight to understand their assembly. (2) A gap of references values, complexities by a lack of methods standardisation, is observable. Especially, knowledge on dispersion and biotic interactions are still too rare. (3) Moreover, studies on temporal aspect in order to understand better the colonisation processes are almost absent of the corpus.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie S. Joimel) 11 May 2022

    https://hal.science/hal-03665441
  • [hal-03624235] Evaluation des services écosystémiques rendus par les micro-fermes urbaines et leurs sols - Bilan du projet de recherche semoirs [2018-2021]

    L’augmentation de la population urbaine, la demande en produits frais de proximité et le besoin croissant de nature en ville stimulent l’engouement pour l’agriculture urbaine, notamment dans les pays industrialisés. De nouvelles formes émergent, telles que les « micro-fermes urbaines », dont l’activité de production alimentaire est étroitement imbriquée avec des activités de loisir, pédagogiques ou à vocation sociale. Elles sont implantées sur des sols urbains remaniés ou non, d’historique très hétérogène ou sur du bâti, en construisant des sols à partir de matériaux divers, en particulier des déchets organiques de la ville. Alors que les attentes sont fortes vis-à-vis de ces composantes d’une trame verte et des services écosystémiques qu’ils pourraient rendre à la ville, ceux-ci ne sont pas connus et évalués. L’objectif de ce projet est d’évaluer les services écosystémiques rendus par les micro-fermes urbaines, en considérant plusieurs catégories de services : support de biodiversité, approvisionnement, régulation et services culturels, afin d’apporter aux acteurs de la ville des éléments pour une meilleure gestion de cette forme d’agriculture urbaine et de leurs sols. Méthodologie : le projet porte sur six micro-fermes illustrant la diversité de cette forme d’agriculture urbaine de par l’importance relative de la production alimentaire et d’autres activités et le type de sols sur lesquelles elles sont développées, localisées à Paris ou en Petite Couronne, unité territoriale du projet. Il s’appuie sur des compétences variées dans une démarche pluridisciplinaire : pédologues, agronomes, écologues, sociologues et paysagistes, et associe différents acteurs : porteurs de projets de micro-fermes, associations dédiées à la nature en ville et personnels de services d’urbanisme. Les services écosystémiques sont appréhendés par une série d’indicateurs. Résultats attendus : (i) Une identification et une quantification d’indicateurs des services rendus par un ensemble de micro-fermes urbaines. Une démarche d’analyse de ces services ; (ii) l’identification de leviers d’optimisation de ces services, via une pratique culturale : l’apport d’intrants organiques au sol sous forme de produits résiduaires organiques ; (iii) l’identification d’outils relatifs aux états du milieu nécessaires aux porteurs de projet, urbanistes ou collectivités locales, pour un développement de l’agriculture urbaine optimisant les services rendus ; (iv) des échanges et un renforcement de la structuration des acteurs de ces micro-fermes urbaines. Organisation en six lots : Le lot 1, fil rouge du projet, mobilise une diversité d’acteurs de l’agriculture urbaine afin de sélectionner six fermes parmi une présélection réalisée en début de projet et de co-organiser les campagnes de prélèvement et observations. Cet ensemble d’acteurs est ensuite mobilisé pour discuter des résultats obtenus dans les autres lots, identifier les outils nécessaires pour mieux insérer les micro-fermes dans le métabolisme urbain, en minimiser les externalités négatives et en optimiser les services écosystémiques rendus. Cela permettra d’étudier la place actuelle et potentielle des micro-fermes dans des documents d’urbanisme. Le lot 2 est une caractérisation des micro-fermes au plan biophysique et de leurs pratiques. Le lot 3 quantifie et qualifie la biodiversité floristique et tellurique (microorganismes, mésofaune, macrofaune du sol). Le lot 4 est consacré au service d’approvisionnement en aliments, en abordant également leur qualité sanitaire (teneur en ETM et HAP). Le lot 5 quantifie des indicateurs de services de régulation du cycle de l’eau (infiltration et capacité de rétention de l’eau), du climat global (stocks de carbone des sols), du climat local (régulation de la température) et du recyclage des déchets (inventaire des pratiques, de la nature et de l’origine géographique des produits résiduaires organiques utilisés). Le lot 6 est consacré aux services sociaux, culturels et paysagers associés aux micro-fermes en mettant l’accent sur les pratiques et représentations des parties prenantes.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Baptiste Grard) 30 Mar 2022

    https://hal.science/hal-03624235
  • [hal-03665415] One green roof type, one Technosol, one ecological community

    Green infrastructures play a key role in the functionality and resilience of urban ecosystems. The physical, including thickness, chemical and biological properties of the Technosols of green infrastructures on rooftops are highly variable, leading to more or less favourable conditions for soil biodiversity. The aim of this study was to investigate the abundance and diversity of bacteria, fungi, nematodes, collembola and plants communities in relation with abiotic parameters of Technosols on 12 productive and extensive green roofs of the Paris region (France). Results showed that green roofs harboured a high level of abundance and diversity from microorganisms to micro and mesofauna. Microbial biomass ranged between 16.3 and 419.8 µg DNA g-1 , with a predominance of bacteria, nematodes represented 820-60 700 individuals per kg of soil and between 1000 and 60 700 collembolan were present per m 2 of soil. A total of 13 986 bacterial OTU (Operational Taxonomic Unit), 33 559 fungal OTU, 47 Collembola species, 28 nematodes families, 16 cultivated plant species and 48 spontaneous plant species was identified on all the green roofs studied. Microbial, animals and plants communities were significantly different between the two types of green roofs. Productive and extensive rooftops represent contrasted habitats, which can strongly influence the soil biota. Any voluntary action to enhance soil biodiversity in cities would need to take-into-account both soil properties and the landscape around.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie S. Joimel) 11 May 2022

    https://hal.science/hal-03665415
  • [hal-03951589] Assessing the future trends of soil trace metal contents in French urban gardens

    Soil trace metal concentrations (e.g., cadmium, copper, lead, zinc) in vegetable gardens have often been observed as exceeding the geochemical background levels. These metals are a threat both to soil and plant functioning and to human health through consumption of contaminated vegetables. We used a mass balance-based model to predict the four metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations in soils after a century’s cultivation for 104 urban vegetable gardens, located in three French metropolises, Nancy, Nantes, and Marseille, based on a survey of gardening practices. If current gardening practices are maintained, an increase in soil Cd (35% on average), Cu (183%), and Zn (27%) contents should occur after a century. Soil Pb concentration should not vary consistently. Organic amendments are the major source of Cd, Pb, and Zn, followed by chemical fertilizer while fungicide application is the major source of Cu. Cessation of chemical fertilizer use would only slightly reduce the accumulation of the four metals. The solubility of the four metals would decrease significantly after a century, when pH increases by one unit. A liming practice of acidic soils should therefore be a feasible way to prevent any increase in the metal mobility and bioavailability.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Xueqian Zhong) 23 Jan 2023

    https://hal.science/hal-03951589
  • [hal-03951368] Role of different size classes of organisms in cropped soils: What do litterbag experiments tell us? A meta-analysis

    Soil organisms are essential for the functioning of agrosystems, especially in the process of litter decomposition. Litterbags constitute one common way to assess litter decomposition and to investigate the role of the different groups of soil organisms in the decay activity. However, there is currently no standardized litterbag protocol to measure the effects of soil organisms on litter decomposition. Furthermore, litterbag studies remain scarce in agrosystems and little information is available about the influence of different groups of soil organisms depending on agricultural practices. The development of cropping systems that rely on high soil biodiversity and fertility however requires a detailed understanding of these processes. In order to address this need and to have an overview of the existing protocols, we conducted a review on litterbag experiments in annually cropped soils. We collected information on the experimental design (e.g. duration, number of replicates), litterbags (e.g. size, mesh), climate, soil type, standing crop, enclosed litter (e.g. litter type, quality) and methods used to characterize organic matter decomposition and soil organisms. The effects of soil organisms of different size classes (meso- and macrofauna) was assessed with a meta-analysis performed on studies using litterbags of different mesh sizes. The general effect size of soil macrofauna, mesofauna (in addition to soil microorganisms) and of their combination was assessed with a three-level random-effect model accounting for the random effect at the study level. This effect was compared for subgroups based on climate, soil, standing crop, agricultural system and litter type as categorical factors, and for depth of bags, duration of the experiment and size of litter pieces as continuous factors. Macrofauna, mesofauna and the combination of both were found to significantly increase litter decomposition. Surprisingly, meso- and macrofauna contributed equally to litter decomposition and their effects were not additive (when comparing the role of meso- and macrofauna independently and simultaneously). These effects tend to be influenced by various factors: climate, soil, standing crop and agricultural system for macrofauna; standing crop and litter type for mesofauna; and soil, standing crop and litter type for their combined effects. Multi-mesh litterbag experiments showed that even in soils with high disturbances, soil organisms of several size classes have a significant impact on organic matter decomposition. While this study showed that both soil macrofauna and mesofauna increased litter decomposition in annual cropping systems, there are still numerous gaps in our knowledge of the impacts of the agronomic (e.g. cropping system, practices, crop type) and environmental contexts (e.g. climates, soils). Forecasting future studies, we provide guidelines to develop a standard litterbag protocol adapted to the specificities of annually cropped soils.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Juliette Chassain) 16 Oct 2023

    https://hal.science/hal-03951368
  • [hal-03405532] Functional and Taxonomic Diversity of Collembola as Complementary Tools to Assess Land Use Effects on Soils Biodiversity

    Collembola have been proposed for several decades as a good model organisms to survey soil biodiversity; but most of the studies focused on taxonomic endpoints. The main objectives of this study are to compare the effects of the different land uses, including urban and industrial land uses, while using both collembolan functional and taxonomic biodiversity approaches. We collected data on 3,056 samples of Collembola communities across 758 sites in various land uses throughout France. The types of land use considered included all types of human activity from forestry to urban, industrial, traffic, mining and military areas, agricultural grassland, arable land, vineyards and urban vegetable gardens. In order to study functional and taxonomic biodiversity, we used community-weighted means, functional indices, species richness and density. When looking at collembolan functional diversity, urban and industrial soils appear clearly less diversified than when considering the taxonomic diversity. We suspect here a functional homogenization effect commonly reported in the literature for various organisms in urban ecosystems. Our study provides range of values for different taxonomic and functional indices of Collembola communities in a wide land use classification across France.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 27 Oct 2021

    https://hal.science/hal-03405532
  • [hal-03581637] A large database on functional traits for soil ecologists: BETSI

    Functional approaches are gaining considerable traction in ecology. Expanding the functional trait-based conceptual framework to soil organisms has been slowed by the lack of standardized semantic and methods. The Biological and Ecological Traits of Soil Invertebrates database (BETSI, https://portail.betsi.cnrs.fr/) is a European database dedicated specifically to soil organisms’ traits. This open database now gathers 129 185 entries on 44 413 species and 56 traits coming from about 2000 literature references and is linked to a thesaurus defining each trait. In this presentation, we will give an overview of the database and of its multiple associated research projects. With more than 20 articles, four PhD thesis conducted on various taxonomic groups and land uses/soil types, and multiple collaborative projects, e.g. on soil invertebrates feeding preferences or earthworm distribution in France, the database offers many opportunities to improve our knowledge on the functional facet of soil biodiversity. Most publications using or citing BETSI aimed to clarify the relationships between functional traits and habitat or environmental stressors. We will further highlight the main perspectives and future directions on functional traits research in soil ecology in order to advance the monitoring and conservation of soil biodiversity.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 20 Feb 2022

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03581637
  • [hal-03195875] Early colonization of constructed technosol by microarthropods

    Technosols are defined by the World Reference Base as soils subjected to a strong human influence and containing at least 20% of artefacts. The construction of Technosol using recycled waste material is considered an appealing sustainable use of both natural and anthropic resources. Constructed Technosol can attract and host a multitude of soil organisms, forming a reserve of biodiversity. In this study, we assessed the early colonization – in successional stages – of a constructed Technosol supporting grassland vegetation by the microarthropod community, in particular Collembola. To do this, the taxonomic and functional characteristics of microarthropod communities in a newly constructed Technosol in northeast France were studied for a period of four years. Collembola communities also increased in density and taxonomic richness, as well as in functional richness and dispersion. However, hemiedaphic Collembola dominated the community, particularly in the fourth year. Findings at the end of the survey indicated that the Collembola community in the studied Technosol remained very different to that of natural grassland, while it shared some characteristics with arable land. However, the present research clearly showed that waste material recycling to construct a Technosol could be an opportunity to support soil microarthropod biodiversity.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Lucia Santorufo) 20 Oct 2021

    https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/hal-03195875
  • [hal-02926120] Simplified performance assessment methodology for addressing soil quality of nature-based solutions

    Purpose In urban areas, soil functions are deeply impacted by all human activities, e.g., water infiltration, carbon storage, and chemical substances degradation potential. In this context, nature-based solutions (NBS) are assumed to deliver multiple environmental benefits for soil quality improvement. The H2020 Nature4Cities project (N4C) offers the framework to develop physical, chemical, and microbiological indicators to the performance assessment for addressing NBS soil quality (performance assessment of soil quality) to be included in a toolbox designed for architects or municipalities. Materials and methods A simplified performance assessment methodology was developed for addressing NBS soil quality. It is based on the comparison of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics to soil reference baseline. In this setting, we present here the results obtained from case studies selected in three European cities (Nantes (F), Nancy (F), Bustehrad (CR)) to test the methodology. The case studies correspond to three different NBSs: former market turned into gardening areas (FMG), green roofs (GR), and urban allotment gardens (UAG). The performance assessment was based on two criteria: (1) soil fertility and (2) soil contamination. Results and discussion The basic soil properties (e.g., pH, bulk density) and soil fertility (e.g., soil organic matter (SOM)) for the two open soil NBS (FMG and UAGs) are equivalent to cultivated soils. Those of GR are highly controlled by the type of natural materials used in the substrate. Concerning contamination, the soil quality of FMG was shown to be significantly impacted by former agricultural practices (pesticide residues, trace metals (TE)). Measured molecular biomass of FMG was compared with predictive molecular biomass (determined according to the soil physicochemical properties). Data showed that 12 of the 14measured plots are classified as altered or very altered soils with regard to this parameter. TE in UAGs soils exhibit variousconcentrations, depending on former land use, cultural practices, and geological contexts.ConclusionsIn conclusion, the study showed that soil fertility is a rather interesting tool in the evaluation of urban soil quality.Nevertheless, basic soil properties seem to be influenced by the effects of trace element and pesticide contamination. Thepresence of NBSs seems to have a favorable impact (e.g., filtration of pollutants). Inappropriate management of urban soilscan lead to a decrease in soil quality and thus influence the current major issues (e.g., carbon sequestration, contamination ofurban spaces by organic, and inorganic pollutants).

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Ryad Bouzouidja) 31 Aug 2020

    https://hal.science/hal-02926120
  • [hal-03119511] Contribution of chemical inputs on the trace elements concentrations of surface soils in urban allotment gardens

    Abstract Purpose Urban soil contamination by heavy metals is one of the foremost challenges for urban soil quality, especially in the urban agriculture context. Urban gardening is a common practice in many industrialized and developing countries. How sources of soil contamination relate to inputs and influence the heavy metal content in soils, however, is not established yet. Materials and methods This study aims to assess the potential of pesticide applications (such as Bordeaux mixture) on soil quality. A set of 104 allotment gardens was selected in three cities in France, and topsoil was sampled and analyzed. Results and discussion The four most abundant metals in urban vegetable garden topsoils were Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr. The past and/or present industrial and urban activities are not the only cause of the metal contamination in urban vegetable garden soils. Gardens, where pesticides such as the Bordeaux mixture are being used showed significantly higher total Cu values in soils (78 mg kg−1 compared with 49 mg kg−1 for untreated gardens). Conclusions Even though the risk of metal contamination through vegetable consumption is usually considered low, we clearly identified indicators of anthropogenic Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn pollution due to pesticides inputs. This link was particularly strong between the use of Bordeaux mixture and increases Cu levels.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 24 Jan 2021

    https://hal.science/hal-03119511
  • [hal-03665514] Evaluation des services écosystémiques fournis par les sols de micro-fermes urbaines : Méthodologie et retours d'expériences

    Objet récent de recherche, les micro-fermes urbaines sont aujourd'hui en plein essor, portées par un mouvement associatif, citoyen, entrepreneurial et politique relativement important. Ces fermes sont définies par leurs petites surfaces (moins d'1,5 ha paractif), l'implication de bénévoles et une diversité d'activités. Différentes fonctions sont ainsi associées à ces lieux (éducatives, productions alimentaires, loisirs etc.), faisant de ces micro-fermes urbaines des nouveaux types d'espaces végétalisés en ville susceptibles de fournir de multiples services écosystémiques. Néanmoins, le manque de connaissances actuelles sur le sujet ne permet pas d'appréhender dans le détail l'importance des services rendus. Par ailleurs, l'implication des parties prenantes dans une telle évaluation parait être un enjeu essentiel afin de comprendre les déterminants et facteurs d'influence de ces fermes ; les porteurs de projet étant eux-mêmes, par exemple, créateurs de savoirs et de pratiques agronomiques originales en s'adaptant aux contraintes du milieu urbain. L'objectif de cet article est de décrire et de discuter une méthodologie d'étude des services écosystémiques rendus par les micro-fermes urbaines, mise en oeuvre dans le cadre du projet SEMOIRS (Evaluation des Services Ecosystémiques rendus par les MicrO-fermes urbaInes et leurs Sols ; 2018 –2020) financé par l'ADEME. Au sein de ce projet, 7 micro-fermes et leurs sols à Paris et en petite couronne ont été étudiés durant deux ans. Ces fermes situées en toiture (3) et de plain-pied (4) sont illustratives de la diversité de cette forme d'agriculture urbaine. Des indicateurs ont été identifiés et sélectionnés pour étudier les différents services : (i) service d'approvisionnement alimentaire (rendement et qualité de la production), (ii) des services de régulation (rétention d'eau, qualité de l'eau de percolation, recyclage de résidus urbains, stockage de carbone dans le sol, fourniture de nutriments), (iii) service de support de biodiversité et (iv) des services culturels (impact sur l'apprentissage, le bien-être, l'esthétique) et paysagers. Trois types de méthodes ont été mobilisés pour acquérir les données : (1) participatives, (2) relevés, observations et enquêtes de terrain ainsi que (3) des mesures dites externes (en laboratoire ou à partir de bases de données). Après avoir présenté les indicateurs et méthodes utilisés par service, l'article discute de cette méthodologie et des perspectives pour l'étude de projets en milieu urbain. Cette approche participative couplée à une démarche d'acquisition de données « externes » paraît pertinente et génératrice de savoirs tant sur les services rendus que sur leurs facteurs d'influences

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Baptiste Grard) 11 May 2022

    https://hal.science/hal-03665514
  • [hal-03030638] Using Functional Traits of Soil Organisms in Ecological Engineering to restore sustainable SUITMA: A Promising Approach?

    Ecological engineering has been originally defined as the design of sustainable ecosystems that integrates human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both (Mitsch and Jørgensen, 1989). This nature-based management might be relevant especially to restore sustainable SUITMA. Despite promising results using earthworms (Ampoorter et al 2011), termites (Mando 1997) or ants (Bulot et al 2014), soil invertebrates that play a major role in ecosystem functioning are rarely considered in the existing restoration programs. One current limitation to their use is the impossibility to determine an effective and site-specific list of species to be reintroduced for restoring soil chemical and physical properties. This can be solved by embracing the functional diversity of soil communities through adopting a functional trait-based approach. Instead of a classic taxonomic approach, functional traits can help to reduce context dependency and therefore enable generalization across communities and ecosystems. Pey et al. (2014) defined soil invertebrates’ traits as “morphological, physiological, phenological or behavioral features, measurable at the individual level, from the cell to the whole-organism level, without reference to the environment or any other level of organization”. While plant traits are already precisely incorporated in ecological restoration approaches (e.g. to select suitable plant species for restoration), this is rarely the case for soil organisms yet. Our working group of scientists in soil ecology and ecological engineering addressed the potential to use soil organisms’ functional traits to conceive sustainable and integrative ecosystem SUITMA restoration. We proposed a list of key traits related to three main ecological functions (soil structuration, nutrient and pollutant cycling process, biocontrol and preys’ regulation) that could be considered depending on the focus of the restoration plan. We further highlighted the main gaps of knowledge that need to be addressed for a successful integration of soil organisms’ functional traits in ecological engineering.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (A Auclerc) 30 Nov 2020

    https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/hal-03030638
  • [hal-03030675] An evaluation of ecosystem services delivered by urban micro-farms: the research project SEMOIRS [2018-2020]

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Baptiste Grard) 30 Nov 2020

    https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/hal-03030675
  • [hal-02172511] Contrasting homogenization patterns of plant and collembolan communities in urban vegetable gardens

    Urban biotic homogenization is one of the foremost challenges for conservation of biodiversity in urban green areas. Urban gardening is a common practice in many industrialised and developing countries. The ability of urban vegetable gardens to support biodiversity, however, has yet to be studied in depth. To investigate the responses of flora and soil fauna to urbanization, we surveyed the taxonomic and functional composition of plant and collembolan communities, in addition to soil parameters, in 15 urban vegetable gardens across three large French cities. The vegetation was identified in six plots of 1 × 1 m in each urban vegetable garden and collembolan were extracted from one intact soil core sampled in the center of each plot (5 cm depth, 6 cm diameter). We found contrasting effects of urbanization on plants and Collembola biodiversity. The taxonomic and functional composition of the soil fauna was more similar within cities than among cities, which was driven by similarities in soil parameters. In contrast, plant communities were functionally similar among cities. Understanding the effects of urbanization on soil biodiversity could have implications for the management of urban ecosystems, in particular that of urban soils.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 03 Jul 2019

    https://hal.science/hal-02172511
  • [hal-01810429] La faune du sol - Déterminants de la structure des communautés et impacts sur le fonctionnement du sol

    La faune du sol - Déterminants de la structure des communautés et impacts sur le fonctionnement du sol .

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Jérôme Cortet) 07 Jun 2018

    https://hal.science/hal-01810429
  • [hal-01783981] Effect of Geogenic Lead on Fungal and Collembolan Communities in Garden Topsoil

    Geogenic lead (Pb) is considered to be less bioavailable than anthropogenic Pb and exerts less effect on the soil fauna. However, Pb contamination in vegetables has been reported in the case of geogenic anomalies, even at moderate concentrations (around 170 mg kg-1). In this study, we investigated collembolan communities using both taxonomic-and trait-based approaches and observed fungal communities to assess the effects of a moderate geogenic Pb anomaly on collembolans and fungi in an urban vegetable garden soil. Results indicated that geogenic Pb indeed modified fungi communities and altered the functional structure of collembolan communities in garden soils. Although geogenic Pb presented low bioavailability, it affected soil fauna and vegetables similar to anthropogenic Pb.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 27 May 2020

    https://hal.science/hal-01783981
  • [hal-01857292] Intraspecific body size variability in soil organisms at a European scale: implications for functional biogeography

    1. Investigating the functional facet of biodiversity provides ecologists with a deeper understanding of community assembly and ecosystem processes, from local to biogeographical scales. A central assumption in functional ecology is that interspecific trait variability is higher than intraspecific variability. The stable species hierarchy hypothesis states that for similar species found in different environmental conditions, their species trait ranking is conserved. In this study, we applied this trait hierarchy concept prevalent in plant ecology to the growing field of soil functional ecology, for which newly developed trait databases are being increasingly used. However, to date there have been few attempts to test for patterns of intraspecific trait variability in these databases. 2. We thus aimed to characterize how such patterns might influence (i) a species hierarchy based on trait values, and (ii) the conclusions of a trait-based analysis at a community level. To examine this, we used Collembola body size data (extracted from the BETSI database) as model trait. The source consisted of four regional trait datasets (Poland, Scandinavia, Spain and UK) and one dataset for which species traits are defined at a continental (European) scale. 3. We found that, firstly, species were consistently ranked in all the trait datasets, although slight differences were observed between continental and northern European (i.e. Scandinavia and UK) trait datasets. In the two northern datasets, body size was higher (ca. 10%), indicating an intraspecific body size gradient from temperate to colder northern regions that we assumed could be explained by latitudinal patterns. 4. Secondly, using selected published species abundance matrices (from experimental studies), we calculated the community-weighted mean body size using various trait datasets. The findings showed that the slight discrepancies observed between trait datasets can lead to different conclusions. 5. This work confirms that properly defining the extent of intraspecific trait variability in databases is of primary importance in order to ensure robust conclusions. This is particularly important for databases hosting large scale data, that might be influenced by biogeographical patterns as latitudinal gradients. We recommend using a local regional trait dataset when available or, if not, a continental trait dataset. As trait databases are now commonly used tools for performing trait-based analyses, it is crucial to carefully select the data used to make inferences.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Jonathan Bonfanti) 14 Aug 2018

    https://hal.science/hal-01857292
  • [hal-01655399] Spatial variability of trace elements in allotment gardens of four European cities: assessments at city, garden, and plot scale

    Purpose Urban allotment gardens (UAGs) are expanding worldwide, especially in large cities. Environmental pressures (direct and diffuse pollution, gardener practice, geogenic contamination) often result in the accumulation of potentially harmful trace elements in garden soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the spatial variability of trace element distribution in UAGs from city, garden, and plot scale in four European cities; to provide a baseline understanding and identify abnormal values under environmental pressures; and to evaluate the potential of portable X-ray fluorescence screening as a useful tool in soil management. Materials and methods The four cities (Ayr and Greenock (Scotland), Lisbon (Portugal), Nantes (France)) provided a wide range of environmental pressures on soils. The locations of the 14 allotment gardens were identified in consultation with the local municipality in each city to reflect various land uses or according to previous evaluation of soil quality. Soil sampling was carried out in 66 plots in total, from which 3 datasets were produced: (i) basic soil properties and trace element concentrations from a composite sample of topsoil for each plot (trace elements quantified by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry (ICP-OES/MS) or using in-lab portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF); (ii) in situ PXRF measurement on composite samples (263 plots in Nantes); and (iii) composite samples from 32 small areas within 4 plots in one garden of Nantes. Results and discussion The results were analyzed to assess the spatial variability of soil properties. At city and garden scale, the variability observed for basic soil properties and major elements is dominated by local geology/parent material (pH, CaCO3, Fe) and gardening practice (OM, CaCO3), which vary between each country. The range of trace element concentrations is similar between each city except for Greenock. Extreme values are observed for Cu, Pb, and Zn reflecting human disruption. In most situations, the trace element contamination was explained through the historical and environmental situations of the site. The PXRF screening method proved useful in providing detailed mapping for hot spot detection or delineation, providing support for soil management at plot and garden scale. Conclusions As anticipated, basic soil properties appear to be controlled by the parent material. At plot and garden scale, the trace element variability shows the influence of land use history and background and strong inputs from external factors (e.g., by industrial activity or traffic emission). The PXRF screening method appears to be an efficient solution for soil management as it can be used to discriminate zones which may require restriction on cultivation.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Béatrice Bechet) 26 May 2020

    https://hal.science/hal-01655399
  • [hal-01662248] Are Collembola “flying” onto green roofs?

    Green roofs, especially productive ones (e.g. of edible biomass), are urban ecosystems developed in response to the scarcity of arable areas in urban environments. Their installation is also perceived as a possible way to preserve biodiversity in cities. However, the effectiveness of green roofs in supporting biodiversity, especially soil biodiversity, has rarely been studied. In order to orient the ecological engineering of green roofs, it is crucial to understand the resulting biodiversity patterns. We hypothesised that a functional trait-based approach could be used to investigate different ways of colonisation. We investigated collembolan communities in both extensive and productive green roofs. Surprisingly, no difference was observed in either taxonomic or functional structures of collembolan diversity between extensive and productive green roofs. Conversely, according to the functional composition, two ways of colonisation are suggested: a passive wind dispersal − the “flying” collembolans − and a settlement through compost inputs. We conclude that stakeholders should take into account the spatial connections of green roofs with other green spaces in order to support soil biodiversity. Further studies are needed to more accurately elucidate the importance of green roof types for collembolan communities and associated ecological networks.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 12 Dec 2017

    https://hal.science/hal-01662248
  • [hal-01507698] Urban and industrial land uses have a higher soil biological quality than expected from physicochemical quality

    Despite their importance both in soil functioning and as soil indicators, the response of microarthropods to various land uses is still unclear. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of land use on microarthropod diversity and determine whether a soil's biological quality follows the same physicochemical quality-based gradient from forest, agriculture-grassland, agriculture-arable land, vineyards, urban vegetable gardens to urban, industrial, traffic, mining and military areas. A database compiling the characteristics of 758 communities has been established. We calculated Collembola community indices including: species richness, Pielou's evenness index, collembolan life forms, the abundance of Collembola and of Acari, the Acari/Collembola abundance ratio, and the Collembolan ecomorphological index. Results show that agricultural land use was the most harmful for soil microarthropod biodiversity, whilst urban and industrial land uses give the same level of soil biological quality as forests do. Furthermore, differences between the proportions of Acari and ecomorphological groups were observed between land uses. This study, defining soil microarthropod diversity baselines for current land uses, should therefore help in managing and preserving soil microarthropod biodiversity, especially by supporting the preservation of soil quality.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 26 May 2020

    https://univ-rennes.hal.science/hal-01507698
  • [hal-01607475] Impact des invertébrés sur les fonctions des sols et leurs applications dans les systèmes sol-plante

    De par leur structure tridimensionnelle, leur large gamme de porosité, la diversité de leurs caractéristiques physicochimiques et des conditions microclimatiques, les sols abritent un nombre considérable, parfois inestimable d'organismes. Au sein des agroécosystèmes, les enjeux sont de comprendre les relations entre la plante cultivée et son environnement biophysique incluant les interactions biologiques et les effets de la biodiversité des organismes des sols. L’impact de la faune du sol sur la production primaire peut être vu au travers de leur effet sur les fonctions de (i) recyclage des nutriments, (ii) entretien de la stabilité/structure du sol, (iii) contrôle des bioagresseurs et (iv) support de biodiversité. Ces fonctions écosystémiques sont respectivement associées du point de vue des plantes à (i) leur nutrition, (ii) le milieu physique dans lequel les plantes se développent, (iii) leur santé et (iv) les interactions entre plantes. L’effet de la faune du sol sur chaque fonction peut être expliqué par de nombreux processus et mécanismes qui impliquent l’ensemble des organismes des sols. Ces différents processus sont détaillés dans ce chapitre.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Mickael Hedde) 03 Oct 2017

    https://hal.science/hal-01607475
  • [hal-01592222] Biodiversité des Sols

    Biodiversité des Sols. Journée technique CEREMA

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Boulanger-Joimel) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.science/hal-01592222
  • [hal-01619010] Les sols urbains

    Les sols urbains. Journée technique du CEREMA sur les sols

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 18 Oct 2017

    https://hal.science/hal-01619010
  • [hal-01614434] Feedbacks of a couple of eco-informatic tools for soil inverterbrate functional traits: an example of interoperability by semantic data integration

    Soil invertebrates are assumed to play a major role in ecosystem dynamics, since they con-tribute to ecosystem services. Despite their acknowledged importance, relationships betweensoil invertebrate diversity, soil processes and environmental changes deserve more attentionand still cannot be satisfactorily predicted. Taxonomic or a priori functional groups ap-proaches were usually used. Consequently, a new theoretical framework is proposed relyingon the concept of functional traits. Functional trait is de ned as any morphological, physi-ological, phenological or behavioural feature measurable at the individual level.Functional trait approaches have been intensively developed in several domains (e.g. plantecology). However, soil ecology stayed the poor relation of this drive. Bene ting from ex-perience in other domains, we have identi ed determinant obstacles to the development offunctional trait-based approaches for soil fauna.Consequently, we built two interoperable tools: a database (http://betsi.cesab.org/) and athesaurus of trait names (http://t-sita.cesab.org/BETSIvizIndex.jsp). Advantages of thissemantic data integration will be presented in terms of scienti c and methodological aspects.Future challenges will be addressed. Among them, the collective e ort that is pivotal tomove forward in such a framework. We can also cite the need for the construction of datawarehouse to bring together several trait databases or the interfacing of trait and barcodedatabases.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Johanne Nahmani) 16 Apr 2024

    https://hal.science/hal-01614434
  • [hal-01624911] Collembolan trait patterns with climate modifications along a European gradient: the VULCAN case study

    In a climate change context, soil ecosystem services can be threatened, notably through impacts on soil fauna. Collembola can be therefore used for bioindication of soil mesofauna functionality. Here we aim (i) to link distribution of the collembolan communities with their functional traits adaptations to climate conditions at a large scale, (ii) to evaluate how trait patterns are impacted by an experimental climatic treatment. The VULCAN project was carried out from 2001-2004 at 6 European shrublands sites located in Wales, Denmark, Netherlands, Hungary, Spain and Sardinia. Each site received warming and drought treatments in addition to an ambient control. Collembola were sampled from plants, soil surface, and soil, and the communities were characterised and compared in terms of taxonomic diversity and trait composition. Most up-to-date trait database version of the BETSI project (France) and SoilBioStore.au.dk (Denmark) were compiled. Observations on collembolan community structure tended to reflect long-term adaptations to climate. From North to South, biomass and density decreased while species richness tended to increase. Furthermore, analyses of collembolan trait adaptations are ongoing and traits patterns are expected to change along the climatic gradients. We know that in European collembolan communities, temperature play a major role in the variation of species traits, especially in open habitats. The present study aims to go further and qualify this role, and to quantify the effects of experimental warming and drought on traits shifts along climatic gradients. This work encourages further inquiries on collembolan responses from a functional biogeographic angle.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Jonathan Bonfanti) 16 Apr 2024

    https://hal.science/hal-01624911
  • [hal-01592220] Does plant functional composition in flower strips promote functional composition of carabid communities and weed predation in the adjacent rapeseed crop?

    Does plant functional composition in flower strips promote functional composition of carabid communities and weed predation in the adjacent rapeseed crop?. International Conference of Ecological Sciences Sfécologie-2016

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Marine Zwicke) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.science/hal-01592220
  • [hal-01593210] Risques environnementaux et sanitaires dans les jardins

    Risques environnementaux et sanitaires dans les jardins. AFPP - 4e Conférence sur l'Entretien des Jardins Végétalisés et Infrastructures

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Philippe Branchu) 25 Sep 2017

    https://hal.science/hal-01593210
  • [hal-01624913] Collembolan trait patterns with climate modifications along a European gradient: the VULCAN case study

    In a climate change context, soil ecosystem services can be threatened, notably through impacts on soil fauna. Collembola can be therefore used for bioindication of soil mesofauna functionality. Here we aim (i) to link distribution of the collembolan communities with their functional traits adaptations to climate conditions at a large scale, (ii) to evaluate how trait patterns are impacted by an experimental climatic treatment. The VULCAN project was carried out from 2001-2004 at 6 European shrublands sites located in Wales, Denmark, Netherlands, Hungary, Spain and Sardinia. Each site received warming and drought treatments in addition to an ambient control. Collembola were sampled from plants, soil surface, and soil, and the communities were characterised and compared in terms of taxonomic diversity and trait composition. Most up-to-date trait database version of the BETSI project (France) and SoilBioStore.au.dk (Denmark) were compiled. Observations on collembolan community structure tended to reflect long-term adaptations to climate. From North to South, biomass and density decreased while species richness tended to increase. Furthermore, analyses of collembolan trait adaptations are ongoing and traits patterns are expected to change along the climatic gradients. We know that in European collembolan communities, temperature play a major role in the variation of species traits, especially in open habitats. The present study aims to go further and qualify this role, and to quantify the effects of experimental warming and drought on traits shifts along climatic gradients. This work encourages further inquiries on collembolan responses from a functional biogeographic angle.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Jonathan Bonfanti) 16 Apr 2024

    https://hal.science/hal-01624913
  • [hal-01593206] Quel est le rôle de la diversité fonctionnelle des bandes fleuries sur les communautés d'invertébrés du sol et les fonctions écologiques dans les cultures de colza ?

    Quel est le rôle de la diversité fonctionnelle des bandes fleuries sur les communautés d'invertébrés du sol et les fonctions écologiques dans les cultures de colza ? . TEBIS V, Traits écologiques et biologiques des invertébrés du sol

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Marine Zwicke) 25 Sep 2017

    https://hal.science/hal-01593206
  • [hal-01619011] A Paris, les collemboles s’envoient-ils en l’air ?

    A Paris, les collemboles s’envoient-ils en l’air ?. TEBIS V, Traits écologiques et biologiques des invertébrés du sol

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 18 Oct 2017

    https://hal.science/hal-01619011
  • [hal-01615069] Feedbacks of a couple of eco-informatic tools for soil inverterbrate functional traits: an example of interoperability by semantic data integration

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Johanne Nahmani) 16 Apr 2024

    https://hal.science/hal-01615069
  • [hal-01619000] Characteristics of microarthropods communities in topsoil across various forest, agricultural, urban and industrial land uses in France

    Characteristics of microarthropods communities in topsoil across various forest, agricultural, urban and industrial land uses in France. XVII International Colloquium on Soil Zoology

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 18 Oct 2017

    https://hal.science/hal-01619000
  • [hal-01607983] Le partenariat avec les écologistes : principaux problèmes, ressources et limites

    Le partenariat avec les écologistes : principaux problèmes, ressources et limites. Colloque Franco-américain

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Boulanger-Joimel) 03 Oct 2017

    https://hal.science/hal-01607983
  • [hal-01619004] La qualité des sols des jardins associatifs urbains français

    La qualité des sols des jardins associatifs urbains français. Colloque franco-américain Jardinage collectif montée des déséquilibres alimentaires et politiques urbaines

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 18 Oct 2017

    https://hal.science/hal-01619004
  • [hal-01260994] Physico-chemical characteristics of topsoil for contrasted forest, agricultural, urban and industrial land uses in France

    Soil quality is related to soil characteristics such as fertility and contamination. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of land use on these soil characteristics and to confirmthe following anthropisation gradient: (i) forest, (ii) grassland, (iii) cultivated, (iv) orchard and vineyard, (v) urban vegetable garden, and (vi) SUITMA(urban, industrial, traffic, mining and military areas). A database comprising the characteristics of 2451 soils has been constituted. In order to compare the topsoils from six contrasting land uses, a principal components analysis (PCA) was performed on nine geochemical variables (C, N, pH, POlsen, total Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn). The first axis of the PCA is interpreted as a global increase of topsoil metallic elements along the anthropisation gradient. Axis 2 reflects the variability of fertility levels. Human activity increases the pressure on soils along the proposed gradient according to six different distribution patterns. This better knowledge of topsoil quality and its dependence on current land use should therefore help to manage and preserve the soil mantle.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Sophie Joimel) 22 Jan 2016

    https://hal.science/hal-01260994
  • [hal-02801475] Garden soils in industrial countries

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Christophe Schwartz) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02801475

Date de modification : 06 novembre 2023 | Date de création : 21 septembre 2015 | Rédaction : S.Formisano